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Posts Tagged ‘CD’

If you want to try the GnomeBaker disc writer as an alternative to Brasero, or already had it only to find it uninstalled when you upgraded Ubuntu to 12.10, there is no version for Quantal Quetzal, but you can nonetheless get it to install. Unfortunately, it isn’t as easy as just getting Synaptic Package Manager or Ubuntu Software Center to install it, as it won’t be found in the official repositories.

GnomeBaker CD/DVD Writer

First, you need to add the PPA, which you can do by running the following command in the terminal:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnomebaker/stable

Now you need to edit that source list:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list.d/gnomebaker.list

… and replace both instances of quantal with oneiric, then save/exit the file.

Next, run the following to update your software sources:

sudo apt-get update

… and then install GnomeBaker:

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

You’ll now have GnomeBaker back on your system, or have a great alternative to Brasero if you’ve never used it before!

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“Failed to eject media; one or more volumes on the media are busy.”

That is an error message you may come across from time to time, and of course the obvious thing to do is make sure no programs are still trying to access a CD or DVD in your disc drive. And this includes programs that aren’t actively using the device, but are nonetheless keeping it “busy”, like if you have a media player open with files or titles from the disc still in its playlist. But once you have ruled all that out, you still might be left with the inability to eject the disc and get on with things, so hopefully some information here will be of use to you.

In most cases, the following command run in a terminal or via Alt+F2 will successfully unmount the disc, and then eject the tray:

sudo umount -l /media/cdrom0 && eject

Please note: since Ubuntu now automagically creates mount points for discs based on the label, /media/cdrom0 may not work for you, so you may need to ascertain the correct path for the current disc with this command:

mount|grep ^'/dev'

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If you’ve come across some commands that require the actual device name of your CD/DVD drive (eg: /dev/dvd), rather than the mount point (eg: /media/cdrom0), it pays to know what it is, as commands won’t work if they’re looking in the wrong place. There are a couple of ways of doing this, and you’ll probably find they give conflicting outputs, but where one is not useful to you, the other will be; for example, if your drive is both /dev/scd0 and /dev/sr0, you might find /dev/sr0 works for most commands, and where it fails /dev/scd0 won’t.

Method 1:

To find out the name of the block device file representing your optical disc drive, enter the following into a terminal, without a disc in the drive:

wodim --devices

The information will be displayed as follows:

wodim: Overview of accessible drives (1 found) :
————————————————————————-
0 dev=’/dev/scd0‘ rwrw-- : ‘ASUS’ ‘DRW-24B1ST’
————————————————————————-

If there is a disc in the tray, you will see the following error, so just eject the disc and run the command again:

wodim: No such file or directory.
Cannot open SCSI driver!
For possible targets try ‘wodim --devices’
or ‘wodim -scanbus’.
For possible transport specifiers try ‘wodim
dev=help’.
For IDE/ATAPI devices configuration,
see the file README.ATAPI.setup from
the wodim documentation.

Method 2:

To find out the name of the block device file representing your optical disc drive, as well as its mount point, enter the following into a terminal:

mount|grep ^'/dev'

The output will look as follows:

/dev/sda3 on / type ext4 (rw)
/dev/sda1 on /media/Windows XP type fuseblk (rw,nosuid,nodev,allow_other,blksize=4096)
/dev/sr0 on /media/cdrom0 type iso9660 (ro,noexec,nosuid,nodev,unhide,user=ozzman)


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You’ve got to love Linux. There are so many things you can do with it that you could only dream of in Windows. What I’ll show you here is how to set up a button (or launcher actually) that will erase a rewritable disc with one click, with no further action needed on your part.

The command that will do the task is:

cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

If you enter it into a terminal, you will see output similar to:

Starting to write CD/DVD at speed 2.0 in real BLANK mode for single session.
Last chance to quit, starting real write in 0 seconds. Operation starts.
Performing OPC…
Blanking PMA, TOC, pregap
Blanking time: 48.879s

But you don’t have to open a terminal, as this command runs fine from a launcher. So for one-click erasing of CD-RW and DVD-RW media, make a panel launcher for that command, and it’s done. Just insert a disc that needs to be blanked, click the button/launcher, and when the optical drive’s light finishes flashing, your media is now empty and ready for use.

Note: You may need to substitute the correct device path if it differs from /dev/cdrom, as the command will not work if it is looking to an address that doesn’t exist. It will likely be something like /dev/scd0 or /dev/sr0; to find out exactly what it is, read this guide.

Another error you may encounter may be that the operation cannot proceed because the disc is mounted (which can happen if you stick in a RW with data on it), and will end with something like:

Error trying to open /dev/cdrom exclusively (Device or resource busy)… retrying in 1 second.
Error trying to open /dev/cdrom exclusively (Device or resource busy)… giving up.
WARNING: /dev/cdrom seems to be mounted!
wodim: Device or resource busy.

Simply unmount the disc drive by right-clicking it in the left pane of Nautilus and choosing Unmount, then try the command again.

Note: If you can find no Unmount option, only Eject, you can do it via the terminal (replacing /dev/scd0 with the correct path if need be):

umount /dev/scd0

You can of course also run both commands at once (note this will not work as a launcher, as it will only run the first command):

umount /dev/scd0 && cdrecord -v dev=/dev/scd0 blank=fast

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Can’t Blank a Disc?

Unfortunately, while this command works great with some media, on other discs you might see it end with the following error:

Error: this media does not support blanking, ignoring.
This drive or media does not support the ‘BLANK media’ command
wodim: Cannot blank disk, aborting.

You can try adding the options -force and blank=all to the end of the command, but don’t get your hopes up. In my case, old 2x RW DVDs get blanked fine, but the 4x RWs I just bought simply refuse to be blanked in this way.

You will need to erase such discs with a burning app such as K3b (which will let you pick an alternate method if the default blanking option doesn’t work).

 

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If you’ve tried as many burning apps as I have over the years, both in Windows and Linux, you’ll already know that they all have their limitations, if you look hard enough. And when it comes to especially long file-names, you’ve probably also seen a few messages telling you the offending file-names will be truncated to fit in with the standard being used to burn the disc.

K3b is a great program that can do many things the others can’t, but it will complain about really long names that go past the allowed amount of characters, at least on the default setting. But there is a way around this, and it isn’t opening another app like GnomeBaker.

When you are in the Burn dialogue, go to the Filesystem tab, and under File System you will notice the setting is (probably) Linux/Unix + Windows, and this Windows support is the problem. Instead, choose Linux/Unix only and your project will be burned to disc without mention of long file-names. And your disc will still be able to open in Windows, and current versions of it should be able to handle the extra-long names. But, if you are worried about cross-platform compatibility issues, you can change it back to Linux/Unix + Windows when burning your next disc, and only set it to Linux/Unix only when you need to.

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Click here for all K3b tips

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K3b is an excellent disc burning program with lots of features, and one of those is the ability to customise the quick start pane that is shown when there is no open project.

The 2 default buttons are New Audio CD Project and New Data Project, but you can add more to these, or replace them with whatever you please. As an example, I’ll show you how to add a button for movie DVDs while removing the rarely-used audio CD button.

To add a new button, you can right-click any existing button, and from the Add Button menu choose your option.

Alternatively, just right-click anywhere in that pane (other than on a button) and automatically the Add Button menu is displayed. Simply click on your choice and a button for it will be added to the end (right of existing buttons).

To remove a button, simply right-click it and choose Remove Button, and it will be gone from sight. Note that you cannot delete the More actions… button (which is actually a good thing).

As I said, you can add as many buttons as you want. In fact, you can pretty much eliminate the need to go back into the More actions... menu ever again.

However, if you want to keep it neat and tidy, and only really use a couple of options – like burning data discs and movie DVDs – just display buttons for those.

As you can see, it is incredibly easy to tailor K3b‘s quick start pane to your needs, so set it up how you want and you will rarely ever need to click More actions… again.

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Click here for all K3b tips

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K3b is a versatile CD/DVD burning utility that makes a great addition to anyone’s arsenal of multimedia apps. It has features many others lack, like the ability to successfully burn VIDEO_TS folders to playable movie DVDs, and even if you’re happy with your current burning app, it’s good to have just in case. But it is so feature-rich and easy to use that it could well become your disc burning app of choice.

K3b is actually made for KDE (Kubuntu’s desktop environment), but runs fine in Gnome. If you have KDE installed as a secondary desktop environment, then you’ll already have all the libraries and dependencies K3b will need; if you’re only running Gnome, when you install K3b any bits and pieces of KDE it needs will be installed along with it. It will probably look a bit different than your Gnome apps, because it will be themed by KDE, but should work absolutely fine.

K3b is user-friendly, yet has advanced options, and is even customisable. If you’re using another app and come across something it can’t do for you, you’ll probably find K3b has no such problem. And even if K3b can’t seem to do it, there is probably a way, if you just look around.

In this post you will find all tips related to K3b, so hopefully you can find answers for your burning needs, whether you currently use another program (like the default Brasero) or already use K3b.

If you don’t already have K3b, you can install it via Synaptic, or enter sudo apt-get install k3b into a terminal. Any dependencies will be installed automatically.

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Burn VIDEO_TS Folders to Playable Movie DVDs

Customise K3b: Add or Remove Quick Start Buttons

Long File-Name Support for Burning Data Discs with K3b

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Every now and then, you’re going to need some technical info about your optical disc (CD or DVD) drive. For example, if you’re using a command like that outlined in Fix “Cannot find input plugin for MRL [dvd:/]” Error in Kaffeine, MPlayer & Other Media Players in Ubuntu, being sudo ln -s /media/cdrom0 /dev/dvd, it will be useless if /media/cdrom0 is not the actual mount point. Often I see in forums people complaining a command couldn’t find the disc drive, but the command would work if the correct mount point was specified (they’re not universal, which I think many people expect them to be).

But finding out the mount point of your CD or DVD drive is actually quite easy: insert a disc, wait for it to be mounted, and when a folder window opens to the drive automatically (if it doesn’t, open it manually), simply note the path/address in the Location bar! Yes, it’s that easy, since the location won’t be the disc’s label, but the mount point on your system.

Another way to do it is simply browse through the subfolders in /media (or could even be /mnt on older systems) until you find the one that shows your disc (you’ll need to have one in the drive, of course).

Or if you want to do it via the terminal, you can use mount|grep ^'/dev' which will display info as follows:

/dev/sda2 on / type ext3 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro)
/dev/sda1 on /media/Windows-XP-x64 type fuseblk (rw,nosuid,nodev,allow_other,blksize=4096)
/dev/sr0 on /media/cdrom0 type iso9660 (ro,nosuid,nodev,user=ozzman)

In this case, /dev/sr0 is the device path, and /media/cdrom0 is the mount point, so if you ever come across a command for your disc drive where the mount point is specified as (for example) /media/disk1, you can pretty much expect it not to work, but at least you know that you can replace the incorrect value with /media/cdrom0 (or whatever your mount point actually is).

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If you’re unfamiliar with MD5 checksums (or MD5sums for short), they are simply a string of numbers (hashes) generated when each file is scanned, to be used to later verify the integrity of the data. You may have noted when downloading Linux .iso images or similar that there either was a text file with it – usually with the same suffix as the main file, but with perhaps an .md5sums extension – or the actual hash below the download link.

Also, you probably know you can check your Ubuntu CD for defects while at the boot menu, but since that just looks to an md5sum.txt file (most common name on Linux live CDs), you can also do so in Ubuntu via the terminal. So, for example, if you’ve burned a copy of the latest Ubuntu (or other Linux distro) live CD for a friend, you can simply open a terminal and check it without having to reboot.

But the most important use of the md5sum command is to create data verification for folders on your drive, as well as data CDs and DVDs, and even video DVDs. If you just wanted to periodically make sure no files are corrupt in a given folder (or whole drive if you want), this is the way to go. If you have a whole bunch of things in a folder you want to burn to a data disc, then the checksum file you create will let you check the disc for defects.

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So when you want to create the checksums, open a terminal in that folder and enter the following:

find -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \; > md5sum.txt

Note that this will also create a hash for the file itself, ie:  md5sum.txt, which will produce an error when checked, since it was generated while the file was still being created:

md5sum: WARNING: 1 of 103 computed checksums did NOT match

When you scroll up the terminal to see the cause of the error, you’ll find:

./md5sum.txt: FAILED

You will need to manually edit out the line for md5sum.txt, and if the file is really large, just hit Ctrl+F and search for md5, and it will take you to the line you need to delete.

OR:

To avoid md5sum.txt being added to the checksums altogether, run the following instead:

find -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \; | sed '/md5sum.txt/d' > md5sum.txt

Note that not only the md5sum.txt currently being generated will be left out, but any other files of the same name that already exist in other folders being checked. If you want to include all the other md5sum.txt files, run the first command instead, and just edit out the reference to the one that was generated in the root folder.

Once that’s done, you can verify the folder/drive any time you wish. With discs, it isn’t limited to data, or rather since the .vob files etc of a DVD are data, you can generate the md5sum.txt in the parent folder of the title (ie: the one VIDEO_TS resides in) and check movies as well as data backups.

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To check a folder, open a terminal there and enter:

md5sum -c md5sum.txt

To check a disc that has that file, including the likes of the Ubuntu CD, you’ll need the terminal pointing at the disc. But rather than open a folder window and choose Open in Terminal from the context menu, you can do that via any open terminal and incorporate the checking command above with:

cd /media/cdrom0 && md5sum -c md5sum.txt

Occasionally systems don’t have cdrom0 as the device name for the disc drive, so when you open a terminal there the other way, make note of the device name and alter the last command accordingly.

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When the check is over, if there are any errors, it will tell you how many failed the test out of how many listed. In the following example, you are actually presented with two errors at the end, the first complaining of a missing file, the other reporting one that seems to be corrupt:

md5sum: WARNING: 1 of 102 listed files could not be read
md5sum: WARNING: 1 of 101 computed checksums did NOT match

You can then scroll up the terminal if need be and find those that didn’t pass:

md5sum: ./Wallpaper01.jpg: No such file or directory
./Wallpaper01.jpg: FAILED open or read

./Wallpaper002.jpg.jpg: FAILED

In this example, Wallpaper01.jpg is seen as “missing”, because it was in fact renamed to Wallpaper001.jpg (to keep in line with the 3-digit numbering of the rest of the files) after the checksum was created (so Wallpaper001.jpg is totally ignored, since there was no hash created for it, and Wallpaper01.jpg is seen as missing, since there is no longer a file of that name). Wallpaper002.jpg is probably corrupt, though not all files that do not pass the test fail to open (but, generally, the case is that the file is corrupt, and the larger the file, the  more chance there is of that).

Otherwise, if all you see is the command prompt with the last file above it with an OK next to it, then all is fine:

./Wallpaper100.jpg: OK

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To make all this easier, make command aliases, like make5 (to generate an md5sum.txt file), 5 (to check a folder) and cd5 (to check a disc that can be verified). This will save you memorising and typing long commands, or even copying and pasting from a text file of commands you’ve probably got (if you’re clever).

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To check a disc image or other file you’re downloading that has a checksum listed, you can generate a checksum, and simply compare the output with what is listed on the website:

md5sum name_of_the_image.iso

Obviously, you’ll need to replace the name in the example with the actual name of the file, but to save typing it if it is long, you can just enter md5sum (followed by a space), drag the downloaded file to the terminal and drop it there, then hit Enter (though you can, of course, just copy the file’s name as well). Then, as I said, simply compare the numbers in the terminal and website.

Now, if you’re downloading a bunch of stuff, all with checksums supplied, you can create your own master checksum file, which will check them all in one go when you’re ready. Syntax is very important, so the lines should look like this:

8790491bfa9d00f283ed9dd2d77b3906 *ubuntu-9.10-desktop-i386.iso
3faa345d298deec3854e0e02410973dc *ubuntu-9.10-alternate-i386.iso
dc51c1d7e3e173dcab4e0b9ad2be2bbf *ubuntu-9.10-desktop-amd64.iso

In this example, Ubuntu CDs are used, but they can be anything, as long as you lay it out like that. You can name the file what you want, but if you want to stick with tradition, and to make it easier to check  (via the command above, or its alias 5), name it md5sum.txt. And you can use this before you get all the files, as when you run the check, it will just tell you 2 out 0f 3 couldn’t be found (and you’ll see the one you did download listed, hopefully with an OK next to it).

If you name the checksum file something different, or in the case of the Ubuntu discs downloaded a master checksum file for all images, and it has a name like Ubuntu 9.10.MD5Sum (though that’s the name I actually gave it), it doesn’t matter. You can just enter md5sum -c (followed by a space), then either type the name of the file, or drag the file to the terminal. Note you can also do this with the alias 5 – it will complain it didn’t find md5sum.txt, but then go on to verify the files recorded in Ubuntu 9.10.MD5Sum (or whatever your file is called). Of course, you could just rename the checksum file to md5sum.txt, but as you can see, you don’t really need to.

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When you’re going to backup a folder to DVD, always run a check on it first. That way, if you’ve done something like renamed a bunch of files after the md5sum.txt file was created, you’ll know before burning a disc that will always come up with those “errors”. You can then either generate new checksums, or open md5sum.txt and replace the old names with the new ones (renaming files does not alter their checksum hashes, so you do not need to generate new ones for them).

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So, hopefully that’s all you need to get you going in setting up some data verification, which comes in handy when wanting to make sure all the data on a DVD is valid before passing it on, or deleting the copies off your hard drive if archiving. And now that you know what those hashes or .md5 files are on websites, make sure you grab them, so you can verify the integrity of your downloads. And if you set up those aliases, all of this becomes even simpler, as those names are short and easy to remember.

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A nice little media catalog program for keeping track of your data CDs and DVDs is CD Cat (Disc Catalogue). It scans discs, notes all the files and folders, and adds it all to the database. It will even include the tags of MP3 files, and you can add extra comments for any folder or file. You can do searches for words, and it will include your extra comments.

Not only that, but you can use the Add Media button to scan local folders or even entire drives! So, not only can you catalogue your discs, but also your whole hard disk, or just specific folders. You can then use Rescan media to update the database, and do quick searches which will bear even more fruit if you’ve added keywords of use to you in comments on some of the files and folders.

There are other similar programs out there for Linux, but having tried a few, CD Cat is my recommendation. To install it, simply open Synaptic and mark cdcat for installation. Or even quicker, paste the following into a terminal:

sudo apt-get install cdcat

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