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Posts Tagged ‘bootloader’

Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using.

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If you’ve protected GRUB with a password, then forgotten it, you can use a Live CD to mount the partition where your GRUB configuration file is stored, then delete the password. To mount your partition, enter the following in a terminal from the Live desktop:

mount -t /dev/sda2 /mnt

remembering to change “sda2” to your Ubuntu partition’s correct designation, if need be. Your Ubuntu partition will now be mounted under /mnt, so you can now edit the GRUB config file (as superuser, so you can save the changes). To do so, enter the following in a terminal:

sudo gedit /mnt/boot/grub/menu.lst

Locate the password line amongst the text and remove it; it will look like:

password --md5 $1$9sdflksdf/sdf44k

Save the file and reboot.

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Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using.

↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔

You can create your own splash images for the GRUB bootloader menu, but they need to be 640×480 pixels in size, a maximum of only 14 colours, saved in the .xpm format, and then compressed. Sound too hard? Well, here’s a single command that does it all for you in one go!

In this example, the image is called “Ubuntu-Glass.png” and residing in the user’s Pictures folder. Obviously, just replace the path and filename in the example command with that of your own image. Another thing to remember is that some pictures resized will look very different (ie: distorted), so go for ones that have the same shape/ratios (in other words, wallpapers that are 800×600, 1024×768, 1600×1200, etc).

To convert a picture, enter the following (with correct filename) into a terminal:

convert -resize 640×480 -colors 14 ~/Pictures/Ubuntu-Glass.png ~/Pictures/Ubuntu-Glass.xpm && gzip ~/Pictures/Ubuntu-Glass.xpm

You now have a boot menu splash you can get GRUB to load instead of just showing white text on black background. Don’t know how to go about that? Then read about how to add a splash image to GRUB.

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

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Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using.

↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔

You can actually add a picture to the GRUB boot menu, but these are special pictures that are compressed and have the extension .xpm.gz. First you’ll need some splash images, so go here and search for “grub”, and save them all in a folder of your choice. You will then need to create a new folder called images in GRUB’s residence, which you do by entering the following into a terminal:

sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images/

To copy all bootsplash files to this new protected folder, open a terminal in the folder you saved the splashes in and enter:

sudo cp *.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/

If just wanting to copy one file over, you can replace the asterisk (*) with the file name. Note that these files must be .xpm images that have been compressed and so have the extension .xpm.gz (in other words, do not extract the picture from within).

To edit menu.lst to incorporate the image of your choice, enter the following into a terminal:

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

then add the following lines at the very top of the file (or change the file name if it already exists):

# Splashimage for Bootloader Background
splashimage=(hd0,1)/boot/grub/splashimages/mygrubsplash.xpm.gz

Note that you may need to substitute your Ubuntu partition’s  correct address for (hd0,1), and that the GRUB system of naming drives and their partitions is different to that of Linux. Whenever you want to switch between boot menu images, simply edit menu.lst again and replace the name before the .xpm.gz with that of the replacement picture.

Want to know how to go a step further? Create your own GRUB boot splash!

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

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Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using.

↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔

You can quite simply change GRUB‘s preference for Ubuntu being the default operating system (the one it boots to after the countdown has finished) to that of whichever was used last. It will then boot to that when you press Enter or the countdown finishes. Simply open menu.lst for editing as superuser by pasting the following into a terminal:

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

and when you see right near the top:

default 0

simply edit it to this:

default saved

Close and save menu.lst and GRUB will automatically boot the last used OS from then onwards. Note that you will still be able to choose other OSes from the boot menu, and that whenever you boot to another, it will become the new default (until you boot another).

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Related Guides:

Make GRUB (Legacy) Boot Into Your Windows System by Default Instead of Ubuntu

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

Read Full Post »

Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using.

↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔

You can make GRUB boot to an operating system other than Ubuntu, like Windows, by simply editing a bit of text. Open menu.lst for editing as superuser by pasting the following into a terminal:

sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

and near the top you should see:

default         0

You will need to change the “default” value from “0” (zero) to the number of the Windows entry, which should be near the bottom of the file and look like:

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for a non-linux OS
# on /dev/sda1
title        Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
root        (hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader    +1

Noting that the default entry (Ubuntu) is “0not “1”, simply count the entries at the bottom of menu.lst, and deduct 1 from the value of the Windows drive/partition.

In other words, if your GRUB menu has the four basic options (Ubuntu, Ubuntu Recovery Mode, Memtest+, and Windows), then your Windows drive is the fourth option, so the “default” value should be “3”. Obviously, if your boot menu has some earlier kernels still listed, and altogether there are 8 entries with Windows as the last, then the value would be “7“. As I said, simply count the entries at the bottom of menu.lst (they should all look similar to the Windows one) and deduct one from it (assuming Windows is the last entry, of course).

Close and save menu.lst and GRUB will automatically boot Windows from then onwards. You can of course still choose another OS like Ubuntu at the boot menu before the countdown finishes.

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Related Guides:

Make GRUB (Legacy) Automatically Boot to the Last Used Operating System

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

Read Full Post »

Please note that this is for the next-generation GRUB 2, not the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using. For the legacy GRUB version of this guide, click here.

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GRUB 2 has a different system for naming drives than you’re used to in Linux, and you will need to understand this before proceeding with commands or customisisation that requires this specific information. Both the drive and the partition are numbers in GRUB 2, with the drive starting from 0 (zero) and the partition starting with 1 (this is unlike legacy GRUB where both start with zero).

This is different from the Linux convention of naming a drive a letter, and its partitions as numbers, starting with a and 1 respectively (eg: “a” in sda1 meaning first drive, with the “1” meaning the first partition on that drive). Also note that the drive and partition are separated with a , (comma) in the designations GRUB 2 uses.

So therefore the first partition on the first hard drive (sda1 or hda1 in Linux) is hd0,1 in GRUB 2. Similarly, your second hard drive (sdb or hdb) would actually be hd1, and if you were talking about the 7th partition on your 3rd drive (sdc7 or hdc7) it would be hd2,7.

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

Read Full Post »

Please note that this is for the “legacy” version of GRUB still widely in use, not the next-generation GRUB 2. If unsure, check out this guide on how to find out which version of GRUB you are using. For the GRUB 2 version of this guide, click here.

↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔↔

GRUB has a different system for naming drives than you’re used to in Linux, and you will need to understand this before proceeding with commands or customisisation that requires this specific information. Both the drive and the partition are numbers in GRUB, and starting from 0 (zero).

This is different from the Linux convention of naming a drive a letter, and its partitions as numbers, starting with a and 1 respectively (eg: “a” in sda1 meaning first drive, with the “1” meaning the first partition on that drive). Also note that the drive and partition are separated with a , (comma) in the designations GRUB uses.

So therefore the first partition on the first hard drive (sda1 or hda1 in Linux) is hd0,0 in GRUB. Similarly, your second hard drive (sdb or hdb) would actually be hd1, and if you were talking about the 7th partition on your 3rd drive (sdc7 or hdc7) it would be hd2,6.

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Did this information make your day? Did it rescue you from hours of headache? Then please consider making a donation via PayPal, to buy me a donut, beer, or some fish’n’chips for my time and effort! Many thanks!

Buy Ubuntu Genius a Beer to say Thanks!

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